Some people, as a result of difficulties during their developmental period, and through no fault of their own, develop patterns of repeated behaviour which is maladaptive and often inflexible.

This behaviour is a way of managing unpleasant or intolerable affect (feelings/emotions). Unfortunately, such behaviours are often self- destructive and destructive to relationships with others.

A carefully taken psychiatric history reveals patterns in behaviour which begin early, are repeated, and sustained throughout life. The behaviours are often accompanied by symptoms of depression and anxiety.

Treatment varies depending on the nature of the vulnerabilities but always involves some form of evidence-based psychotherapy. The gaining of insight and the mastering of more adaptive ways of managing unpleasant affect remain the mainstays of treatment.